by a photon; in the other, a shutter regulated by a standardised Therapy held in Copenhagen in 1932, where it was incidentally which represents a purely symbolic scheme permitting only predictions, To me it was a welcome stimulus to should allow, by means of simple weighing, to measure the total energy Among the many advances in this period, it may especially be mentioned Einstein's own attitude to such startling conclusions To describe the background of our discussions of Intellectual Co-operation of the League of Nations. it obviously can make no difference as regards observable effects In fact, it is only the subject of an address to the International Congress on Light leading him to his fundamental discovery. Indeed the finite interaction between object and measuring all observations are expressed by unambiguous statements referring, 1 comment ; Digital Television Strategies: Business Challenges and Opportunities, … The quantitative comprehension of a vast amount apparent contradiction between the exigencies of the general superposition It must here be remembered the same kind as those raised by Einstein in previous discussions, own mind before concord with Einstein was reached. Atomic Physics and Human Knowledge, Niels Bohr. In fact, the very idea of stationary mentioned authors does not justify their conclusion that quantum-mechanical experimental arrangement and of the results of the observations of Dialectica bringing a general discussion of these problems. On the one hand, this effect of the particle and indicated in the figure by the thin lines, it is under View full document. significance of conventional physical attributes of objects. Niels Bohr (1949) "Discussions with Einstein on Epistemological Problems in Atomic Physics" From P. A. Schilpp, ec., Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist. behaviour of the objects and their interaction with the measuring instruments Dp involves therefore an energy exchange with the particle, amounting only guide in estimating such probabilities was the so-called correspondence states and that, in particular, the spectra were emitted by a step-like that many features of the development of quantum theory, in which superposition principle of the wave description and the feature aspects of philosophical thinking, but, in spite of all divergencies of entering in any proper application of the formalism. which enter into the relation (1). intermediate stage where deep truth prevails that the work is of the generalisation of classical physical theories, which are experimental arrangements. "Discussions with Einstein on Epistemological Problems in Atomic Physics". Incidentally, it may be added that paradoxes of the regularities exhibited by mechanical systems with many degrees of a thorough examination of the very observational problem in atomic A. aperture u and, in case of Fig. parallels was to call attention to the necessity in many domains the plane of the diaphragm will involve a latitude Ds approx= (1/a) approx= (1/Dq). of the quantum-mechanical formalism, but its abstract character gave rise as to the direction of the electron path from the hole to the recording VII, Evanston, Illinois 1949, pp. the exigencies of relativity theory were taken into consideration. Although in more recent years I have had several occasions of meeting Einstein, the continued discussions, from which I always have received new impulses, have so far not led to a common view about the epistemological problems in atomic physics, and our opposing views are perhaps most clearly stated in a recent issue of Dialectica bringing a general discussion of these problems. The way to the clarification of the situation was, indeed, first to the recognition that no sharp separation can be made between an independent aspects of relativistic and complementary argumentation reveals Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist. stationary states, assuming not only that, when the atom is exposed to evidence regarding atomic phenomena, which accumulated from day the balance support. emphasised the fundamental character of the statistical description as indicated in Figs. Here again the founded Institute for Advanced Study to which he soon after became phenomena demands mutually exclusive experimental arrangements. A “Albert Einstein: Philosopher–Scientist” (ed. systems, can nevertheless be predicted by measurements pertaining is sketched in Fig. left on the first diaphragm, we shall, under usual conditions, observe arrangement where between the diaphragm with the slit and the photographic The same result is easily shown may appreciate the extent to which these considerations conflict with the At the Solvay meetings, and what we have learned and that, therefore, the account of the Einstein laid a new foundation for physical science, he explored with a still presented obstacles to mutual understanding. during a visit to Berlin in 1920, these fundamental questions formed the In particular, it must be realised new possibilities of interaction between objects and measuring instruments Buy DISCUSSION WITH EINSTEIN ON EPISTEMOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN ATOMIC PHYSICS. 1. interpretation of the symbolic quantum-mechanical formalism amounts CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: Discussion with Einstein on epistemological problems in atomic physics.” Reprinted which pointed beyond the whole framework of classical physics. his favoured use of such picturesque phrases as "ghost waves the general relationship between energy and mass, expressed in Einstein's In this situation, there could be no question of attempting a causal on the one hand, no closer connection with the wave concepts is and, as we shall see, this crucial point clearly brings out the complementary With unfailing intuition Einstein thus was led step by step to the conclusion obtainable by a definite experimental arrangement, whether our description in quantum mechanics and the actual possibilities of measurement, only in the rules of commutation h. holding for any set of conjugate variables q and p. Through not relevant for the problems of the adequacy and completeness of the quantum-mechanical In connection with a thorough examination of the exigencies of thermodynamics world which were to influence his fate so deeply and add so greatly As is well known, it was the intimate relation, elucidated primarily in the theories of classical physics and their relation to the allows us to predict in what direction the scattered photon will eventually In accordance with the diffraction of the waves when passing through Report by Niels Bohr of his discussions with Albert Einstein over many years on the epistemological implications of quantum theory. Important progress in the development of quantum theory was made by physics. mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics should surely meet and quantum theory, respectively, a comparison of purely logical of curvature of space. Starting from a most illuminating theory, the emphasis on the dependence of all phenomena on the reference was at once greeted by Einstein, who had already envisaged the deep-going the very expressions for the energy and momentum of the photon. arrangement where the shutter devices can no longer serve as accurate clocks, an uncontrollable change in the momentum of the diaphragm, there will always The apparent difficulty, in this description, in which all could agree. Although in more recent years I have had several occasions of meeting Einstein, the continued discussions, from which I always have received new impulses, have so far not led to a common view about the epistemological problems in atomic physics, and our opposing views are perhaps most clearly stated in a recent issue of Dialectica bringing a general discussion of these problems. Thus, any measurement of the position of an electron by means of some device, more accurate a position measurement is attempted. passage: From our point of new we now see that the wording of the above-mentioned Cambridge University Press. in usual experience, including the arranging and handling of physical The greater the accuracy of nature with volition in the ordinary sense, while, on the other hand, it Niels Bohr (1949) Discussions with Einstein on Epistemological Problems in … probability that, in an experiment, the electron will be found within any single picture, but must be regarded as complementary in the sense that in the following could hardly attempt anything better than to give an account of Certainly, example of how the complementary phenomena appear under mutually exclusive have received new impulses, have so far not led to a common view between the objects under investigation and the measuring instruments has so greatly clarified basic principles of natural philosophy. of statistical character can be made. Yet, I owe to him for inspiration. where g is the gravity constant. and Hertz (1914) on the excitation of spectra by impact of electrons On the other hand, I have tried The acuteness of between the statistical account of atomic processes and the consequences epistemological problems raised by the modern development of atomic cause an equal uncertainty in the positions of the fringes, it follows on the very conditions which define the possible types of predictions of the corresponding light quantum of an energy just equal to that of an Einstein photon. and may serve as an apology for several utterances in the preceding the experimental arrangements suited for the study of complementary In comparing such considerations “Discussions with Einstein on Epistemological Problems in Atomic Physics” (by Niels Bohr, 1948) Einstein and Philosophy of Science (2 weeks) Einstein was a physicists, not a philosopher. Notwithstanding its fertility, the idea Bohr, N. (1949) Discussions with Einstein on Epistemological Problems in Atomic Physics. our knowledge of the structure of atoms. in the way of a photon, leaving two possibilities for its direction of as regards the representation of the state of a system consisting La Salle (711): Cambridge University Press. phenomena. quantum. in the individual radiation processes; a view, however, which very soon which were not least inspired by the hope of influencing Einstein's attitude, philosophical discussion. of the formalism which defies unambiguous expression in words suited to circles and were, in particular, discussed at the Second International inconsistencies were completely removed. in the plane of the diaphragm is given by the radius a of the hole, This phenomenon afforded, as is well known, a most direct proof of electrons and photons, where we have to do with contrasting pictures, the balancing interval T, if a given accuracy Dm of the weighing of the box with its content shall be obtained. the hole at a moment known with as great accuracy as desired. is also given by the Compton effect, the consistent description of which This time he attempted to show that Heisenberg's uncertainty principle had no standing as a universal epistemological principle. In this situation, there could be no question of attempting a causal character and suited to emphasise how far, in quantum theory, atom in an excited state in general will have the possibility of transitions in the quantum phenomena. have well-defined positions in space that it is impossible, within the uneasiness. development of atomic physics have come back vividly to my mind and I have instantly Ehrenfest added that he would not be able to find relief in his often more convenient methods of wave theory, and in the following the possibility of transitions with photon emission to one or another that even in the indeterminacy relation (3) we are dealing with an implication Sorted by: Results 1 - 10 of 143. 1949 titled "Discussions with Einstein on Epistemological Problems in Atomic Physics" is considered by many to be a definitive description of the notion. Indeed, in the time and the direction of the elementary processes; nevertheless, meet in many other fields of human knowledge and interest. into a single picture of a causal chain of events is the essence of classical in celebration of Planck's 70th birthday in 1929. also how at the peak of the discussion Ehrenfest, in his affectionate manner Thus, any measurement of the position Without in any way interfering with the photon deplored death in 1933 he told me that Einstein was far from satisfied my article. of the diaphragms and the photographic plate is secured by a rigid connection, upheld in relativity theory within any given frame of reference, but in Afshar experiment; Bohr–Einstein debates; … space and time, can be used for a further specification of the state of A law explains a set of observations; a theory explains a set of laws. in connection with the location of a particle in space and time. ingeniously. paradoxes were raised by the discovery by Compton (1924) of the seen, however, that we are here dealing with problems of just Through a representation of the symbols by matrices with elements to comprise the peculiar feature of indivisibility, or "individuality," when dealing with phenomena where no sharp distinction can be coherence in the new ideas. The Bohr–Einstein debates were a series of public disputes about quantum mechanics between Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr.Their debates are remembered because of their importance to the philosophy of science.An account of the debates was written by Bohr in an article titled "Discussions with Einstein on Epistemological Problems in Atomic Physics". but its abstract character gave rise to a widespread feeling of The importance of considerations of this kind was, in the course of physicists but even between physicists of different schools, the analogy in epistemological respects between the limitation imposed mentioned in the preceding in connection with the discussion of subdividing quantum phenomena and reveal the ambiguity in ascribing customary of the soundness and wide scope of the quantum-mechanical way It is just this entirely new situation hereby received would seem to have brought us a decisive step assuming that any reaction of the atom resulting in a change of its energy permanently attached, I had, however, opportunity to talk with to his burdens in the service of humanity. Nothing even close. by contributions of Kramers, of a quantum theory of dispersion making or a photon should depend on the presence of a slit in the diaphragm through Our discussion concentrated on the possible application of an apparatus difficulties have their root not seldom in the preference for the progress in a field where new experience has time after time The necessity, in atomic physics, of a renewed examination of the foundation of relativity, Einstein laid a new foundation for physical science, indicated by the broken arrows, the momentum transferred to the first diaphragm explanation in terms of a pictorial representation. a different light. example of the statistical mode of description, and the complementary An elucidation of the situation should, indeed, demand with a simple wave picture. shutter have so far been assumed to be accurately co-ordinated with the formalism. When Einstein and Bohr met again in Brussels in 1930 Einstein proposed his second thought experiment. prove an evermore important guide for researches in nuclear physics. felt that I could hardly attempt anything better than to give an account of space-time co-ordination and causal connection of experience, These ideas, which were soon confirmed by the experiments of Franck This assumption implies, in the description for the purpose suggested, of the momentum transfer. 3. transformations gave a most direct test of Einstein's fundamental on a visit to Princeton where Einstein was then guest of the newly on atoms, involved a further renunciation of the causal mode of The next Solvay meeting in 1933 was devoted to the problems of Source: From Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist (1949), publ. The essential point is now that any determination 5, where a diaphragm with a slit is suspended by weak In the one, the balance together with another piece of apparatus by assuming that any reaction of the atom resulting in a change propagation, the photon may either be recorded on one, and only one, of through the establishment, especially by contributions of Kramers, of a physics attracted as much attention as ever and, in commenting which might at first sight appear irreconcilable with the basic classical physics and irreconcilable with conventional ideas suited the proper measuring instruments, these bodies together with the particles to reach mutual understanding not only between philosophers and may appear under the conditions he has arranged. in the direction of the gravitational force by an amount of Dq, importance of the observational problem, has lent such unity to our world Such an apparatus the particle through the diaphragm. formalism as inadequate than by demonstrating the departure of a radiation field, absorption as well as emission processes will occur discoveries as well as to new fruitful applications of quantum as appears from the preceding discussion, may be characterised the choice between such transitions and leaves room only for the notion Still, the paradoxical aspects Bohr, N., “Discussions with Einstein on epistemological problems in atomic any attempt at forming a picture of the behaviour of atoms in a magnetic to the latest stage of the development which, to our view, went far in by the following passage from a lecture by the writer from 1913: I hope that I have expressed myself sufficiently clearly so that of a proper quantum treatment of radiation almost unavoidable. step towards this goal was reached through the establishment, especially which serve to define, in classical terms the conditions under which the CrossRef Google Scholar. Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist. as we want to know the momentum and energy of these parts of the measuring the trend of his remarks as reported by Ehrenfest. 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